United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) UNDRR coordinates international efforts in disaster risk reduction and it reports on the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. It convenes the biennial Global Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction.
The Government of India and UNDRR [Earlier UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction] signed a Statement of Cooperation (SOC) on the second day in the margins of Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) held in New Delhi during 3rd -5th November 2016 wherein India made one-time contribution of US $ 1 Million to UNISDR towards implementation of the functional areas identified in cooperation statement.
The Statement underlined the guiding principles, objectives and areas of cooperation between India and UNDRR towards the effective implementation and monitoring of the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), which was adopted at the Third World Conference on DRR at Sendai in Japan in March 2015.
SOC outlined four thematic areas of Gol's preference to ensure effective implementation and monitoring of the Sendai Framework viz. (i) Establishment of Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), (ii) Establishment of Facility for Technical Support to Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction, (iii) Support to Monitoring and Implementation of the Sendai Framework for DRR (SFDRR) and (iv) Establishment of e-platform or strengthening of an existing e-platform for optimal utilisation of expertise and resources on disaster risk management.
India partnered with UNDRR to work towards strengthening the capacity of Asian countries in ensuring training and capacity building for Asian countries; promoting international and regional cooperation to reinforce political commitment, facilitate knowledge sharing and strengthen the capacity of UNDRR for monitoring and review of the Sendai Framework. It also facilitated the sharing of knowledge and experiences, and collaborative efforts towards addressing critical regional challenges.
UNDRR has established following mechanism/ vehicles to achieve its objectives:
The United Nations office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) is formed in December 1991 by the General Assembly resolution 46/182. The resolution was designed to strengthen the response of United Nations Organizations to complex emergencies and natural disasters by creating the Department of Humanitarian Affairs and replacing the office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator, which has been formed in 1972. UNOCHA has established following mechanism/ vehicles to achieve its objectives:
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is inter-governmental organisation, the creation of which was announced in Shanghai, China on 15th June 2001. On 9th June 207, India was inducted as full member in SCO, at its Annual Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit meeting in Astana, which was attended by Shri Narender Modi, Hon’ble Prime Minister of India.
Joint Urban Earthquake Search and Rescue Exercise and 10th SCO Meeting of the Heads of Departments, 2019
Government of India organized a Joint Urban Earthquake Search and Rescue exercise of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Member States to improve collective preparedness from 4-7 November, 2019 in New Delhi. All the Member States of SCO viz. China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan participated in this exercise, Mongolia participated as an observer. In addition, representatives from INSARAG, UNDP, UNICEF, WHO and SDRF also participated.This exercise provided an opportunity to enhance the co-ordination & co-operation involving multi-agency operations in an earthquake of large magnitude.
Tenth SCO Meeting of the Heads of Departments of Member-States of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, dealing with prevention and elimination of Emergency Situations was held in New Delhi on 08th November, 2019. The event was chaired by Sh. Amit Shah, Hon’ble Home Minister of India
SCO Members States meeting on International Cooperation and Rescue, 2020
The Virtual Meeting on International Cooperation and Rescue among Departments of Member-States of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, dealing with Prevention and Elimination of Emergency Situations hosted by China was held on December 3rd, 2020. This meeting was attended by SCO member States including India.
During the meeting, all parties agreed to strengthen the experience sharing in prevention of COVID-19 pandemic and the prevention, mitigation and relief of major natural disasters among emergency management departments; promote cooperation in emergency management under the framework of the SCO.
India's Chairmanship of SCO Council of Heads, 2023
During the India's Chairmanship of Shandhai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Council of Heads of State in the year 2023, the following 04 events in the fields of Disaster Management were organized by MHA/NDMA -
BIMSTEC, founded in 1997, Comprises 07 Countries, five from South Asia and two from South east Asia. It is an organisation formed with a vision to increase co-operation in development in the Countries surrounding the Bay of Bengal.
First Joint Disaster Management Exercise for BIMSTEC Countries, 2017
The Government of the Republic of India hosted the first Annual Disaster Management Exercise for ‘Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi- Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation’ (BIMSTEC) countries (BIMSTEC DMEx-2017) on 10-13 October 2017 in New Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR).
BIMSTEC DMEx-2017 provided a very good platform for sharing best practices and experience to all member countries involving their response teams. During the simulation exercise, various components viz. Table Top Exercise (TTX), Field Training Exercise (FTX) and After Action Review (AAR) facilitate in demonstrating the important aspects of Disaster Risk Reduction, strengthening regional response and coordination for effective disaster management among the BIMSTEC member countries. About 200 disaster professionals from all seven BIMSTEC countries participated for the first time in tabletop and field exercises.
Second BIMSTEC Disaster Management Exercise, 2020
The Government of India hosted the Second BIMSTEC Disaster Management Exercise- 2020 (BIMSTEC DM EX-2020) with the themes “A cultural heritage site that suffers severe damage in the Earthquake” & “ Flooding or Storm” at Bhubaneshwar /Puri, Odisha w.e.f 11-13 February, 2020.
First Meeting of the BIMSTEC Expert Group on Disaster Management Cooperation, 2022
India held the 'First Meeting of the BIMSTEC Expert Group on Disaster Management Cooperation' virtually on 12th May, 2022. Member States discussed and finalised the concept note on BIMSTEC Disaster Management Cooperation drafterd by India.
Meeting of BRICS Ministers for Disaster Management 2016
Government of India hosted the meeting of BRICS Ministers for Disaster Management on 22-23 August, 2016 in Udaipur, Rajasthan. In this meeting member states Committed to continue to work towards a more risk resilient future by reducing existing disaster and climate related risks through integration of disaster risk management measures into sustainable development. Due to India’s initiative, Udaipur declaration agreed for setting up a Joint Task Force on disaster risk management for regular dialogue exchange, mutual support and collaboration among BRICS Countries.
Meeting of BRICS Ministers for Disaster Management and Joint Task Force 2018
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) had attended the meeting of the BRICS Ministers for Disaster Management and Joint Task Force held in East London, South Africa from 9.6.18 to 01.7.2018 hosted by South Africa.
Meeting of BRICS Joint Task Force (JTF) on Disaster Management 2020
Meeting of BRICS joint Task Force (JTF) on Disaster Management organized by Russian side held on 31.07.2020 via virtual platform. From India NDMA & Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) had attended the meeting and the following issues were discussed:
1st India-Japan Workshop
The Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India had organized the first India-Japan Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction on 19-20 March 2018 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. The workshop was attended by 150 domain experts from Japan and India. The two-day workshop was the follow-up of the Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) signed between the Government of India and the Government of Japan on Cooperation in the field of Disaster Management, which was signed during the visit of Prime Minister of Japan, Mr. Shinjo Abe to India in 2017. The workshop deliberated on various themes viz. disaster management policy framework, risk assessment, disaster resilient infrastructure, early warning system, preparedness by sub-national governments and approaches by the private sector.
2nd India-Japan Workshop
2nd Indo-Japan Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction was held back-to-back with National Conference for promoting Disaster Risk Reduction (NCPDRR) from 13th-15th October, 2018 in Tokyo, Japan. The theme of the workshop was “Preparing for large-scale disasters- Strengthening a network of collaboration in a community”.
3rd India-Japan Workshop
Ministry of Home Affairs has successfully organized the 3rd Indo-Japan Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction on 18th March 2019 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. The workshop was attended by about 140 delegates from Japan and India including experts from both the governments, top premium research institutes, city administrators, specialized disaster management agencies and private sector. The objective of the workshop was enhancing collaboration between research institutes, cities and the private sector in the field of Disaster Risk Reduction.
The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim initiative (IORI) and the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation (IOR-ARC), is an international Organisation Consisting of 23 States bordering the Indian Ocean. It was established on 07th March 1997. The Indian ocean region is sometimes called the "World's Hazard Belt" as it is prone to disasters ,both natural and man-made. According to the UNESCAP ,around 50% of natural disasters occurring in this region are climatogenic and seismologenic in nature.
IORA Meet on Disaster Risk Management 2019
The meeting of IORA cluster Group on Disaster Risk Management (DRM) to strengthen Co-operation in disaster response held on 5-6 Feb, 2019 at New Delhi. The two-day workshop was organised by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) in collaboration with MHA, NDMA, NDRF & IORA. Participants at the meet drew a draft work plan for DRM in IORA and deliberated on the need for establishing a DRM core group to take forward the agreed objectives under the work plan.
Meeting of Indian IORA expert working group on Disaster Risk Mangement-2022
Senior Officials from the NDMA, Govt. of India held a discussion with representatives from the IORA expert working Group on Disaster Risk Management on 26th April 2022
The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a global partnership program administered by the World Bank Group. GFDRR supports developing countries to: (i) mainstream disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in development strategies and investment programs, and (ii) improve the quality and timeliness of resilient recovery and reconstruction following a disaster. GFDRR was launched on September 29, 2006 to support implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA). On March 18, 2015, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) was adopted. GFDRR now supports the implementation of this framework. The Consultative Group (CG) is GFDRR’s primary decision-making and advisory body. Consisting of Members and Observers, the CG sets GFDRR’s long-term strategic objectives and oversees expected results. The Consultative Group has a Chair, who is a representative of the World Bank Group, and a Co-chair, who is a Member of the CG. India became a member in 2013 by paying membership fee and thereafter renewed its membership for subsequent years upto 2020. In May 2019, India was also unanimously chosen as Co-chair of CG for the fiscal year 2020 and continued holding the Co-chair for two consecutive two years i.e. fiscal years 2020 and 2021.
As of now, for the next three years, GoI has kept its status of an Observer Country, to be represented largely through participation in substantive technical events organized by GFDRR. Further, over the next few years, as the new internal status of GFDRR (within the context of World Bank reforms) becomes more stable, and GoI’s own international initiative (i.e. CDRI) matures, India may re-consider joining as a paying Member of GFDRR.
The 13th SAARC Summit at Dhaka in November 2005 considered the issues of regional cooperation for preparedness and mitigation of national disasters and approved the offer of India to set up a SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) in New Delhi. The Centre was inaugurated on 10th October 2006 at the premises of National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) in New Delhi.
At the 37th Meeting of SAARC Council of Ministers (CoM) held in Pokhara, Nepal on 17th March, 2016, SAARC decided to merge the four regional institutions namely SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC New Delhi, India), SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC Thimpu, Bhutan), SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre (SCZMC Male, Maldives) and SAARC Metrological Centre (SMC Dhaka, Bangladesh), which have been closed w.e.f. 31.12.2015, paving the way for the establishment of a new SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) to be located in India.
Accordingly, an Interim Unit of SDMC was set up in the NIDM Campus in New Delhi in June, 2016 and later in November, 2016, the premises of Interim Unit of SDMC was shifted from NIDM, New Delhi to Gujarat Institute of Disaster Management campus at Gandhinagar, Gujarat. The centre is dedicated to work according to the approved blue print of SDMC-IU.
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The Government of India organized the South Asian Annual Disaster Management Exercise (SAADMex) from 23-26 November 2015, in New Delhi. The main objective was to synchronize efforts to institutionalize regional cooperation on disaster response among SAARC member countries.
All the SAARC member countries participated in first ever joint exercise conducted by the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) of India. The focus was to test the inter-governmental coordination and create synergy to synchronize efforts to institutionalize regional cooperation on disaster response among the member countries of the SAARC region.
It was followed by the SAARC Regional Workshop on sharing best practices and to deliberate upon the outcomes of SAADMEX 2015 on 27th November 2015.
A resolution was adopted at the United Nations General Assembly in 1997 to reduce damage from natural disasters substantially by designating the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Following a series of national conferences held during the period of 1994-1997 to discuss the cooperation for disaster reduction, a ministerial level conference was held in Kobe, Japan in 1995 in which 28 countries from Asia and other regions participated. It adopted the Kobe declaration which includes an agreement to consider the creation of a system, which has the functions of a disaster reduction centre for the Asia region. The Asia Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC) was thus established in Kobe in 1998 following an agreement from the participating countries with the Japanese government.
The mission of ADRC is to enhance disaster resilience of the member countries, to build safe communities and to create a society where sustainable development is possible. The centre works to build disaster resilient communities and to establish networks among countries through many programmes including personnel exchange in this field. Currently, there are 29 member countries of ADRC. Each member country has to bear the annual contribution calculated on the basis of GDP
India is one of the founder members of ADRC. Presently, India contributes about US$28,100 annually to ADRC as membership fee.
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) is established in 1986 at Bangkok, Thailand. It is a non- profit, non-political, autonomous, regional organization serving as a regional centre in Asia-Pacific for promoting disaster preparedness, disaster mitigation, awareness generation, exchange of information, community participation etc.
India is a member of the Board of Trustees (BoT), since August 2000. Union Home Secretary is one of the Members of the BoT of ADPC. In 2004, the ADPC became an international body (inter governmental organization). Officials of the Ministry of Home Affairs have been attending the meetings of the Regional Consultative Committee (RCC) of the ADPC and meetings of the Board of Trustees.
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was established in 1994. The ARF membership including India, which joined in 1996, is 25 countries. The first ARF meeting in 1994 brought together Foreign Ministers from Australia, Brunei, Canada, China, European Union (Presidency), Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, New Zealand, PNG, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, USA and Vietnam. Based on its Terms of Reference, the ARF Unit’s role and functions are as follows:
The ARF is the Principle Forum for Security Dialogue in Asia and complements the various bilateral alliances and dialogues, which underpin the region’s security architecture. The ARF is premised on the idea drawn from the ASEAN experience that a process of dialogue can produce qualitative improvements in political relationships. It provides a platform for members to discuss current regional security issues and develop cooperative measures to enhance peace and security in the region.
As all ASEAN members are automatically ARF members, India is actively participating in the ARF meetings and disaster relief exercises.
In May 2015, The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), adopted Resolution 71/11 to establish the Asian and Pacific Centre for the Development of Disaster Information Management (APDIM) in the Islamic Republic of Iran as a regional institution of the Commission. Following the conclusion of APDIM Host Country Agreement between ESCAP and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 30th January 2018, the APDIM were inaugurated in Tehran on 19th December 2018.
APDIM was established with the objective to reduce human losses, material damages and the negative impact of natural hazards through enhancement of disaster information management in Asia and the Pacific. Primary function of APDIM is to contribute to disaster information management for disaster risk reduction and building resilience to disasters coupled with inclusive and sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific. The activities of APDIM focus on three service lines aligned to respective thematic areas for disaster risk reduction and resilience: information and knowledge repository, data bases and standards; capacity development training, knowledge and innovation network; regional information services for cross-border disasters.
India was first elected to the Governing Council of the Asian and Pacific Centre for the Development of Disaster Information Management (APDIM) in May 2019 and re- elected to the Governing Council of the Asian and Pacific Centre for the Development of Disaster Information Management (APDIM) in May 2022. APDIM is governed by a Governing Council consisting of eight ESCAP member countries elected for a period of three years and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the host country of the Centre. At its seventy-eighth session, the ESCAP elected Bangladesh; Cambodia; India; Macao, China; Indonesia; Mongolia; Tajikistan; and Türkiye as members of the Governing Council for the period from 2022 to 2025.